Factors influencing terrestriality in primates of the Americas and Madagascar.

Eppley, Timothy M, Hoeks, Selwyn, Chapman, Colin A, Ganzhorn, Jörg U, Hall, Katie, Owen, Megan A, Adams, Dara B, Allgas, Néstor, Amato, Katherine R, Andriamahaihavana, McAntonin, Aristizabal, John F, Baden, Andrea L, Balestri, Michela, Barnett, Adrian A, Bicca-Marques, Júlio César, Bowler, Mark, Boyle, Sarah A, Brown, Meredith, Caillaud, Damien, Calegaro-Marques, Cláudia, Campbell, Christina J, Campera, Marco, Campos, Fernando A, Cardoso, Tatiane S, Carretero-Pinzón, Xyomara, Champion, Jane, Chaves, Óscar M, Chen-Kraus, Chloe, Colquhoun, Ian C, Dean, Brittany, Dubrueil, Colin, Ellis, Kelsey M, Erhart, Elizabeth M, Evans, Kayley J E, Fedigan, Linda M, Felton, Annika M, Ferreira, Renata G, Fichtel, Claudia, Fonseca, Manuel L, Fontes, Isadora P, Fortes, Vanessa B, Fumian, Ivanyr, Gibson, Dean, Guzzo, Guilherme B, Hartwell, Kayla S, Heymann, Eckhard W, Hilário, Renato R, Holmes, Sheila M, Irwin, Mitchell T, Johnson, Steig E, Kappeler, Peter M, Kelley, Elizabeth A, King, Tony, Knogge, Christoph, Koch, Flávia, Kowalewski, Martin M, Lange, Liselot R, Lauterbur, M Elise, Louis, Edward E, Lutz, Meredith C, Martínez, Jesús, Melin, Amanda D, de Melo, Fabiano R, Mihaminekena, Tsimisento H, Mogilewsky, Monica S, Moreira, Leandro S, Moura, Letícia A, Muhle, Carina B, Nagy-Reis, Mariana B, Norconk, Marilyn A, Notman, Hugh, O'Mara, M Teague, Ostner, Julia, Patel, Erik R, Pavelka, Mary S M, Pinacho-Guendulain, Braulio, Porter, Leila M, Pozo-Montuy, Gilberto, Raboy, Becky E, Rahalinarivo, Vololonirina, Raharinoro, Njaratiana A, Rakotomalala, Zafimahery, Ramos-Fernández, Gabriel, Rasamisoa, Delaïd C, Ratsimbazafy, Jonah, Ravaloharimanitra, Maholy, Razafindramanana, Josia, Razanaparany, Tojotanjona P, Righini, Nicoletta, Robson, Nicola M, Gonçalves, Jonas da Rosa, Sanamo, Justin, Santacruz, Nicole, Sato, Hiroki, Sauther, Michelle L, Scarry, Clara J, Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos, Shanee, Sam, Lins, Poliana G A de Souza, Smith, Andrew C, Smith Aguilar, Sandra E, Souza-Alves, João Pedro, Stavis, Vanessa Katherinne, Steffens, Kim J E, Stone, Anita I, Strier, Karen B, Suarez, Scott A, Talebi, Maurício, Tecot, Stacey R, Tujague, M Paula, Valenta, Kim, Van Belle, Sarie, Vasey, Natalie, Wallace, Robert B, Welch, Gilroy, Wright, Patricia C, Donati, Giuseppe and Santini, Luca (2022) Factors influencing terrestriality in primates of the Americas and Madagascar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119 (42). ISSN 1091-6490

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Abstract

Among mammals, the order Primates is exceptional in having a high taxonomic richness in which the taxa are arboreal, semiterrestrial, or terrestrial. Although habitual terrestriality is pervasive among the apes and African and Asian monkeys (catarrhines), it is largely absent among monkeys of the Americas (platyrrhines), as well as galagos, lemurs, and lorises (strepsirrhines), which are mostly arboreal. Numerous ecological drivers and species-specific factors are suggested to set the conditions for an evolutionary shift from arboreality to terrestriality, and current environmental conditions may provide analogous scenarios to those transitional periods. Therefore, we investigated predominantly arboreal, diurnal primate genera from the Americas and Madagascar that lack fully terrestrial taxa, to determine whether ecological drivers (habitat canopy cover, predation risk, maximum temperature, precipitation, primate species richness, human population density, and distance to roads) or species-specific traits (body mass, group size, and degree of frugivory) associate with increased terrestriality. We collated 150,961 observation hours across 2,227 months from 47 species at 20 sites in Madagascar and 48 sites in the Americas. Multiple factors were associated with ground use in these otherwise arboreal species, including increased temperature, a decrease in canopy cover, a dietary shift away from frugivory, and larger group size. These factors mostly explain intraspecific differences in terrestriality. As humanity modifies habitats and causes climate change, our results suggest that species already inhabiting hot, sparsely canopied sites, and exhibiting more generalized diets, are more likely to shift toward greater ground use.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: climate change, niche shift, evolutionary transitions, primate communities, primate evolution, Mammals, Cercopithecidae, Haplorhini, Biological Evolution, Americas, Primates, Trees, Humans, Animals, Madagascar
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QH Natural history
Divisions: Faculty of Health & Science > Department of Science & Technology
SWORD Depositor: Pub Router
Depositing User: Pub Router
Date Deposited: 27 Oct 2022 08:30
Last Modified: 28 Oct 2022 08:31
URI: https://oars.uos.ac.uk/id/eprint/2755

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